Learners’ Perception on Security Issues in M-learning (Nigerian Universities Case Study)
With the advent of modern technology, mobile phones and smartphones are used not only for calling and text messages but also for banking and social networking. Recent developments in technology have made the use of mobile devices feasible in other sectors such as education and government. While educators are using mobile devices as teaching aids, students are also using them as learning tools. In some cases the developers of mobile learning in universities are making m-learning apps without serious consideration for security aspects whereas the handheld devices pose a serious threat to confidentiality, integrity and privacy of users including the learners. As a case study, this paper investigates the security concerns that students may have with the introduction of m-learning in higher education institutions in Nigeria and how this impacts on their learning. It examines the effects of security threats in m-learning on students and provides recommendations for alleviating these threats.
Photo credit: "Sysop actions of la cabale camembière - croped" by PierreSelim - Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sysop_actions_of_la_cabale_camembi%C3%A8re_-_croped.jpg#mediaviewer/
Adedoja, G., Botha, A., and Ogunleye, O.S. (2012), ‘The Future of Mobile Learning in the Nigerian Education System’, IST-Africa 2012 Conference Proceedings Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham (Eds) IIMC International Information Management Corporation, 2012.
Aderinoye, R.A., Ojokheta, K.O. and Olojede, A.A. (2007), ‘Integrating Mobile Learning into Nomadic Education Programmes in Nigeria: issues and perspectives’, International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 44-52.
Alwi, N. M, and Ip-Shing, F (2009). ‘User’s Perception in Information Security Threats in E-Learning’, Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. ICERI2009 Proceedings, Madrid, Spain. pp. 2345-52
Alzaza,N.S. and Yaakub, A.R (2011) ‘Students’ Awareness and Requirements of Mobile Learning Services in the Higher Education Environment’, American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 3(1) 95-100
Boyinbode O. K. and Akinyede R. O.(2008) ‘Mobile Learning: An Application of Mobile and Wireless Technologies in Nigerian Learning System’, International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 8-11.
Charlesworth, A (2009) ‘Code of Practice for the Further and Higher Education Sectors on the Data Protection Act 1998”, Tech. rep., JISC Legal, (2009)’ available online [http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/Portals/12/Documents/PDFs/ DPACodeofpractice.pdf]. accessed 17 February 2014
Cisco, ‘Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2011–2016’, 14 February 2012, Available online http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/
ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.html accessed 11June 2014
Dale, C. and Povey, G. (2009), ‘An Evaluation of Learner-Generated Content and Podcasting’ ,Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education. [Online] 8 (1) pp.117-123. Available from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/johlste/vol8no1/PP0214Format117to123.pdf accessed 20 April 2014
El-Hussein, M. O. M. and Cronje, J. C. (2010), ‘Defining Mobile Learning in the Higher Education Landscape’, Educational Technology & Society,13(3)12–21.
Graf. F (2002), ‘Providing security for eLearning’, Computers & Graphics, 26(2)355–65.
Hashemi, M., Azizinezhad, M., Najafi, V and Nesari A, J (2011). ‘What is Mobile Learning? Challenges and Capabilities’,Procedia Social and Science Behaviour, 30, 2477– 81
Kambourakis, G (2013), ‘Security and Privacy in m-learning and beyond: Challenges and state of the art’, International Journal of u- and e- services, Science and Technology, 3-6
Keegan, D. (2005). ‘The incorporation of mobile learning into mainstream education and training’. World Conference on Mobile Learning, Cape Town, October 2005.
Kukulska-Hulme, A., Sharples, M., Milrad, M., Arnedillo-Sánchez, I. and Vavoula, G.(2009), ‘Innovation in Mobile Learning: A European Perspective’ , International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning. 1(1)13-35.
Luminita, C. D.C. and Magdalena, C.I.N (2012), ‘E-learning Security Vulnerabilities’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2297 – 301
Osang, F.B., Ngole, J., Tsuma, C (2013), ‘Prospects and Challenges of Mobile Learning Implementation in Nigeria. Case Study National Open University of Nigeria NOUN’ International Conference on ICT for Africa 2013, February 20-23, Harare Zimbabwe
Obodoeze, F.C., Okoye, F.A., Mba, C.N., Asogwa, S.C. and Ozioko., F.E (2013), ‘A Holistic Mobile Security Framework for Nigeria’, International Journal of Innovative Technology an Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) , 2 (3)1-11
Rafiu, M.I, Kayode,S.A and Rapheal, T.O (2011), ‘Implementing Mobile-Learning in Nigeria Tertiary Educational System – A Feasibility Study, International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology 1(1)7
Razaque, A and Elleithy, K (2012), ‘Discovery of Malicious Attacks to Improve Mobile Collaborative Learning (MCL). International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC), 4(4).
Shonola, S.A & Joy, M.S. (2014), ‘Mobile learning security issues from lecturers’ perspectives (Nigerian Universities Case Study)’. In publication (2014).
Taleb, Z and Sohrabi, A. (2012), ‘Learning on the move: The use of mobile Technology to support learning for University Students’,Procedia Social and Science Behaviour, 69,1102 – 09.
Zamzuri, Z. F., Manaf, M., Yunus, Y., and Ahmad, A. (2013), ‘Student Perception on Security Requirement of e-Learning Services’, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 90, 923-30.
Copyright (c) 2014 Exchanges: the Warwick Research Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY), which permits use and redistribution of the work provided that the original author and source are credited, a link to the license is included, and an indication of changes which were made. Third-party users may not apply legal terms or technological measures to the published article which legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
If accepted for publication authors’ work will be made open access and distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license unless previously agreed with Exchanges’ Senior Editor prior to submission.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. (see: The Effect of Open Access)