Exchanges: The Interdisciplinary Research Journal 2020-06-02T05:48:51+01:00 Dr Gareth J Johnson Open Journal Systems <p><em>Exchanges: The Interdisciplinary Research Journal</em> is a peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the publication of high-quality work by researchers in all disciplines, especially early career researchers and emerging domain experts,&nbsp;along with those combining research with academic teaching or other professional employment. The journal welcomes articles from all academic areas, including interdisciplinary research and co-authored papers, in order to encourage intellectual exchange and debate across research communities.</p> <p>The journal's operations are overseen by a Managing Editor-in-Chief Editor based at&nbsp;the University of Warwick, UK, supported by an international Editorial Board comprising early career researchers from around the world. The title is usually published bi-annually. It also provides both editors and authors with a readily accessible and supportive environment in which to develop academic writing and publishing skills of the highest order.</p> <p>Please view our <a title="Focus and Scope" href=""><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></a> or <a title="Submit and article" href=""><strong>Submit an Article </strong></a> using our five step submission process.</p> 'But He Looked Suspiciously Well Fed' 2020-06-02T05:48:44+01:00 Gareth J Johnson <p><em>This is an introductory editorial for the fourteen volume which comprises the very first special issue ever published of Exchanges. In the piece, Editor-in-Chief Gareth J&nbsp;Johnson explores the drivers and process that led to it being produced, while acknowledging the unanticipated labour demands and benefits which have arisen. He also considers how this, and future, special volumes represent a valorisation of Exchanges through a recognised increasing demand for its publication support and a demonstrable value within the global early career researcher community. After playing tribute to the post-graduate researchers who supported the volume's development, the article goes on to briefly highlight each of the articles appearing in the special issue; each one of which stems from a 2018 conference on cannibalism. The editorial concludes with providing information on current calls for publications and plans for future issues, along with contact information for the journal.</em></p> 2020-01-30T14:17:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 'Bites here and there' 2020-06-02T05:48:51+01:00 Sophie Shorland <p><em>A conference review of the 2018 conference, 'Bites here and there': Literal and Metaphorical Cannibalisms across Disciplines, held at the University of Warwick and organised by Giulia Champion. This one-day interdisciplinary and international conference sought to explore the evolution of the tropes of cannibalism and the use of this taboo across time.</em></p> 2020-01-09T10:59:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anthropophagic Re-Manifesto for the Digital Age 2020-06-02T05:48:51+01:00 Vanessa Maia Ramos-Velasquez <p><em>In 2009 I started writing the essay Digital Anthropophagy and its companion piece, the manifesto-poem Anthropophagic Re-Manifesto for the Digital Age. Being an artist from Brazil, I could not escape the cultural mystique of ‘Anthropophagy’. For those unfamiliar with the term, the etymology has a Greek origin dating back to the mythological Kronos (Saturn) eating his own son – ‘Anthrōpophagia’: ‘Anthropos’= human being + ‘phagein’= to eat, i.e., an eating of a human. The words ‘Anthropophagy’ and ‘Anthropophagus’ were transplanted by the European conquistadors in the late 1400s/early 1500s to the land masses renamed ‘America’ and ‘The Caribbean’ at the onset of colonialism. Starting at this period, some native ethnicities of the ‘Amerindian’ populations have been described as practitioners of ritual Anthropophagy and/or Cannibalism. ‘Cannibalism’ itself supposedly finding its root in a misspelling or ironic naming – ‘Canib’<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3"><strong>[iii]</strong></a> – by Columbus when describing the Carib people of Antilles/Caribbean Islands during his navigational enterprises between 1492-1504.</em></p> <p><em>In 1928, Oswald de Andrade devoured Brazilian colonial history itself writing the ‘Manifesto Antropófago’, an adjective form of the term, meaning a Manifesto that possesses the agency to eat. The proposition of the Brazilian Moderns was to devour what comes from outside (‘First World’ novelties), absorb their useful ‘otherness’ in order to output something uniquely Brazilian. Thus ‘Antropofagia’ is appropriated and forever transformed in the 1920s São Paulo into a Brazilian avantgarde. Antropofagia is considered by some critics to be perhaps the only true Brazilian artistic canon. The concepts of this cultural icon have inevitably impregnated my own artworks, especially in my condition of migrant since the age of 19, living in a constant state of becoming ‘other’ somewhere.</em></p> 2020-01-30T09:24:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ‘Provisions being scarce and pale death drawing nigh, / They'd try to cast lots to see who should die’ 2020-06-02T05:48:51+01:00 Duncan Frost <p><em>Ballads actively shaped contemporary popular mentalities and through analysing ballads historians are presented with a world of propaganda and persuasion, aimed at a broad spectrum of society from literate to illiterate. Nineteenth-century ballads describing shipwrecks highlight the moral ambiguities present in extreme life-or-death situations. Many such ballads teach that survival cannibalism was rational, pragmatic, civilised and should be actively encouraged. This article demonstrates how ballads placed cannibalism into a chivalrous context, allowed sailors to vicariously experience the events thereby learning a prescribed ‘ritual’ to follow and made breaking the anthropophagic taboo socially acceptable, even virtuous. </em></p> <p><em>In fictitious ballad narratives, cannibalism is a test of virtue as one person offers their body as sustenance to preserve a starving friend. It is not a horrific departure from civilised attitudes, but a heroic self-sacrifice. Ballads recounting real events of shipwreck cannibalism helped to promote the ‘civilised cannibalism’ ritual of drawing lots to select the victim, placing anthropophagy within a democratic, equitable process. Shipwreck cannibalism ballads offer a contrast to other European descriptions of cannibalism, as the sailor-cannibals are never presented with any of the traits associated with the imagined, non-European cannibal of colonial discourse.</em></p> 2020-01-30T09:35:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Consuming and Being Consumed 2020-06-02T05:48:50+01:00 Carla Scarano D'Antonio <p><em>The article explores how Margaret Atwood demystifies the romance plot in her first novel The Edible Woman by exposing the world of consumerism as artificial and threatening to the point of cannibalism. This is revealed through references to fairy tales and myths with cannibalistic undertones such as ‘Snow White’, ‘The Robber Bridegroom’ and ‘Goldilocks and the Three Bears’. It is also highlighted in the reference to the theme of the eaten heart in Boccaccio’s Decameron and to Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus. In the tempting world of advertisements and commercials, women are objectified and traded and their roles are diminished. In this realm, Marian, the protagonist, is in search of her identity but first tries to ‘adjust’ to society’s artificial and delusional narrative. The advertisements dictate a behaviour, objectify her body and force her to comply with preformed roles. She consciously tries to defend herself from this consumerist mentality by allowing her body to ‘speak’ for her. Her body starts to refuse food and she feels it is alive, until it cuts itself off. Therefore, showing how she refuses to ‘adjust’ to the consumerist society. The narrative points out the inherent cannibalistic quality of the consumerist society in which human beings are commodities and their roles are dictated by commercials and the ferocious rules of profit.</em></p> 2020-01-30T09:41:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anthropophagy of the Werewolf 2020-06-02T05:48:50+01:00 Leah Henderson <p><em>Lycanthropic anthropophagy is the main concern for Justine Larbalestier’s novel Liar (2009). The novel is about the mysterious killing of highschool teen, Zach, in contemporary New York City. Zach’s girlfriend Micah, notorious for being a pathological liar and an outcast, is considered highly suspect as the murderer, particularly by her parents who know she is secretly a werewolf. The werewolf is both exceptional for its special abilities yet also cursed with uncontrollable, bloodthirsty urges at each full moon. This article argues that anthropophagy of the werewolf is metaphorically an act of social taboo when one lives and behaves in opposition to the socially prescribed. Through Micah’s surreal and unstable narration Larbalestier explores contemporary issues such as authority over the individual, gender non-conformity, and mob mentality, in order to criticise popular opinions that ostracise people perceived as outsiders. This article will explore these themes in greater detail and prove the ways in which Larbalestier uses eco-feminist fiction to communicate these criticisms. </em></p> 2020-01-30T09:48:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Camera Devoured 2020-06-02T05:48:49+01:00 Thomas Francis Moran <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>Pedro Costa’s Casa De Lava (1994) draws on the cannibalistic potential of cinema in order to excavate the history of colonialism in Cape Verde. Cannibalism operates in a two-fold manner in Casa. Firstly, it refers to Costa’s practice of employing cinematic references in order to draw out otherwise concealed elements of earlier films. Secondly, it denotes an aesthetic practice in which the film is cannibalised by the people and geography of Cape Verde. By operating in a zone between documentary and fiction, Casa undermines the commodifying and exoticising tendencies of cinema. Instead, by drawing on the stories of the people of Cape Verde, the film illustrates the way in which the legacy of colonialism continues to haunt the island. Cannibal cinema in Casa is a method for making these otherwise concealed histories speak, and in doing so, create new forms of cinematic invention.</em></p> 2020-01-30T09:54:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Consumption from the Avant-Garde to the Silver Screen 2020-06-02T05:48:49+01:00 David Shames <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>In Oswald de Andrade’s ‘Manifesto Antropófago’ of 1928, he explicitly calls for Brazilian and Latin American artists to resist the vestiges of colonial cultural politics by appropriating the cannibal trope and unabashedly plundering and consuming the European cultural tradition to radically rewrite cultural discourse. While Andrade’s Manifesto has been used as a critical lens to examine the Latin American avant-gardes, as well as other modes of post-colonial cultural production, it has not been as widely used as a theoretical apparatus for examining the question of commodity production and consumption. In this paper, I revisit the Manifesto by focusing on its critical dialogue with Marx’s concept of the fetish of the commodity. Linking this fetish with Apparadurai’s recent thinking on the fetishism of the consumer, I trace how cannibalism can be reworked as a mode of ‘profanation,’ to use Agamben’s terms, of the power apparatuses of consumption itself. Then I test the concept of the profanation of consumption with two film case studies - Nelson Perreira dos Santos’ Como era gostoso o meu francês (dos Santos,1971) and Ruggero Deodato’s Cannibal Holocausto (Deodato, 1980). My readings situate these films in their cultural and political contexts and read them as texts which profane the apparatuses of the construction of historical and spectacular images for global consumption.</em></p> 2020-01-30T10:39:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## For Fame and Fashion 2020-06-02T05:48:48+01:00 Michael Wheatley <p><em>This research explores the ways cannibalism in Chuck Palahniuk’s novel Haunted (2005) and Nicolas Winding Refn’s film The Neon Demon (2016) are a consequence, and reflective, of the consuming nature of creative industries. The research draws from this exploration that the consumptive characteristics of cannibalism often allegorise the processes and careers of artists. Specifically, the sacrificial nature of putting oneself into one’s work, the notion of the tortured artist, and the competitive nature of creative industries, where the hierarchy is ascended through others’ losses.</em></p> <p><em>In the framing narrative of Haunted, seventeen writers are trapped within an isolated writing retreat under the illusion of re-enacting the Villa Diodati and writing their individual masterpieces. When inspiration fails them, they sabotage their food supply in order to enhance their suffering, and thus their eventual memoirs. The writers turn to cannibalism, not only to survive but to remove the competition. By consuming each other, they attempt to manufacture themselves as ‘tortured artists’, competing to create the most painful story of the ‘writing retreat from hell’.</em></p> <p><em>In The Neon Demon, the protagonist, Jesse, begins as an innocent young woman who becomes embroiled in the cutthroat modelling industry. Favoured for her natural beauty, Jesse antagonises her fellow models, developing narcissistic tendencies in the process. At the film’s end she is cannibalised by these rivals, indicating the industrial consumption of her purity, the restoration of individual beauty by leeching off of the young, and the retaining of the hierarchy by removing the competition.</em></p> <p><em>Employing close readings of both literary and cinematic primary source material, this interdisciplinary study investigates a satirical trend within cultural representations of cannibalism against consumptive and competitive creative industries. In each text, cannibalism manifests as a consequence of these industrial pressures, as the desire for fame forces people to commit unsavoury deeds. In this regard, cannibalism acts as an extreme extrapolation of the dehumanising consequences of working within this capitalist confine.</em></p> 2020-01-30T10:43:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dejects and Cannibals 2020-06-02T05:48:48+01:00 Kimberly Jackson <p><em>Ana Lily Amirpour’s 2017 film The Bad Batch is a nightmare of postmodern abjection. Set in a desert wasteland in Texas, the film depicts a quasi-futuristic society that starkly reveals the dark underside of contemporary society, here portrayed in two realms, both exhibiting the height of abjection: the cannibal town called the Bridge and the shanty town of Comfort, where a lone perverse patriarch impregnates all the women while doling out steady doses of LSD to contain the masses. Borrowing from Julia Kristeva’s description of the ‘deject’ in her work Powers of Horror, this analysis focuses on those characters who ultimately choose neither of these options. Having confronted and internalized the abject, these characters become eternal exiles, achieving a measure of liberation by assuming and embodying their partiality and by embracing ‘a weight of meaninglessness, about which there is nothing insignificant’ (<strong>Kristeva, J., 1982: 2</strong>).</em></p> 2020-01-30T10:52:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ‘Funeral Baked Meats’ 2020-06-02T05:48:47+01:00 James Stephen Alsop <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>This article argues that the cannibalistic connotations in ‘Hamlet’ may be interpreted in the context of specific cultural anxieties relating to the popular and problematic use of corpse medicine, or mumia. I begin by exploring how Shakespeare represents corpses throughout Hamlet in ways which reference food and culinary practices. By doing so, Shakespeare not only emphasises the tragic objectification of the dead, but also links life and death inextricably to figurative and literal consumption. The essay proceeds to analyse the cannibalistic allusions in ‘Hamlet’ through the lens of the contemporary medical consumption of corpse medicine. While the use of corpse medicine was semantically distinguished from anthropophagy in early modern Europe, I argue that Shakespeare’s depiction of man-eating in Hamlet forces his audience to confront their own unsavoury distinctions between ‘acceptable’ and ‘unacceptable’ forms of cannibalism. Viewed through the lens of cannibal discourse, Hamlet’s language over the course of the tragedy takes on new significance as the prince displays profane hunger that seems to simultaneously repel him and imbue him with a macabre vitality. Something is indeed ‘rotten in the state of Denmark’ (1.4.67), Shakespeare suggests, and the smell appears to be coming from the kitchen.</em></p> 2020-01-30T10:57:36+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cannibal Basques 2020-06-02T05:48:47+01:00 Matteo Leta <p><em>This article will show the importance of cannibalism in the description of the sabbath among the Basques, in the Tableau de l'inconstance des mauvais anges et démons, written by Pierre De Lancre. The Basques were often linked to magic and demons; however, this work constitutes surely the most completed document about such an association. In the Tableau there is a sort of ethnographic analysis of the Basques, who started to be compared to the savages of the New World. Witchcraft and cannibalism are the evidence of a demonic complot, aimed at fighting Christianity and, in some way, the central features of mankind. At any rate, such religious controversy is used also in a totally laical perspective: De Lancre is the representative of the King and his role consists in the affirmation of the French power throughout the region. The purpose of such stereotypes, applied also to other marginalized peoples in Renaissance Europe (such as the inhabitants of Southern Italy portrayed by the Jesuits missionaries), justifies implicitly the necessity to repress and integrate them within the civilization and the forthcoming capitalistic system.</em></p> 2020-01-30T11:04:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 'Such Violent Hands' 2020-06-02T05:48:46+01:00 William David Green <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>For many, ‘Titus Andronicus’ exemplifies the extreme visual horror which characterises the subgenre of Elizabethan revenge tragedy. Long recognised as a collaboration between William Shakespeare and George Peele, the play’s notorious denouement – in which a Gothic queen is tricked into eating her slaughtered sons – has often been interpreted as a satire upon the revenge genre itself. Yet the nature of the play has recently been complicated by the claim that an additional banquet scene, only present in the 1623 Folio, may be a later addition written by a third dramatist, probably Thomas Middleton, and incorporated into the play sometime after 1616. This article will consider the implications of this probability further. It will explore how the author was not simply adding new material to ‘Titus Andronicus’ in order to provide a new selling point for a later revival of the work, but was constructing a new sequence designed to mirror and complement the already infamous cannibalistic conclusion of the original text. Understanding this scene as a later addition, we can now better understand how this additional scene serves as an integral turning point in the drama’s narrative, and is far less ‘disposable’ than previous critics have been equipped to realise.</em></p> 2020-01-30T11:12:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ‘Monkey Meat’ and Metaphor in Shohei Ooka’s Fires on the Plain 2020-06-02T05:48:46+01:00 Hugh Davis <p><em>In Fires on the Plain (1952) novelist Shohei Ooka critiques Japanese imperialism by depicting the collapse of the Japanese army in the Philippines during the final months of World War II. Structured as a post-war memoir written by a soldier named Private Tamura as a patient in a Tokyo mental hospital, the novel explores Tamura’s psychological breakdown in response to having succumbed to cannibalism in order to survive. A complex treatment of memory, guilt, and individual agency in times of war, Fires on the Plain also underscores the ways in which the cannibalistic act may function metaphorically as a commentary on matters related to sex, religion, militarism, and cultural imperialism, as well as revealing anxieties associated with the creation of a post-war narrative of national victimhood in Japan. While Ooka presents Tamura’s eating of human flesh as the culmination of his long descent into madness, the act also serves as a metaphor through which he explores the self-destructive nature of Japanese imperialism, as well as his own responsibility for his unwilling participation in it.&nbsp;</em></p> 2020-01-30T11:28:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 'A kiss is the beginning of cannibalism' 2020-06-02T05:48:45+01:00 Ursula de Leeuw <p><em>In this article, I will put Julia Ducournau’s 2016 coming-of-age horror film Raw in dialogue with Georges Bataille’s general economic theory of transgression. The Bataillean saying ‘a kiss is the beginning of cannibalism’ is taken literally by Raw’s protagonist Justine, as she explores her sexuality while simultaneously acquiring a taste for human flesh. I will begin by mapping the interplay between the transgressions of Raw and Bataille’s general economy, moving forward to Raw’s treatment of transgression as it both converges and diverges with Bataille’s notion of sacrifice. While the film ultimately displays the pitfalls of transgression, I will conclude by evaluating how the role of eroticism in Raw illustrates the enduring importance of transgression for Bataille; as an immediate, sacred moment of inner experience in which the self luxuriates in its own death.</em></p> 2020-01-30T11:36:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Haun-Maun-Khaun 2020-06-02T05:48:45+01:00 Rituparna Das <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>This paper offers a postcolonial reading of some Bengali fairy tales, including selections from Folk-Tales of Bengal (the 1883 collected edition by Reverend Lal Behari Dey); Thakurmar Jhuli (Grandmother's Bag Of Stories), a collection of Bengali fairy tales by Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder (1907); and Bengal Fairy Tales, a 1920 edited volume by F. B. Bradley-Birt (a work by the British diplomat serving in India, which alludes frequently to Mitra Majumder’s text). It interprets the symbols and stalk images used in these texts in terms of the relationship of coloniser versus colonised. It argues that the depictions of the cannibal demons in these fairy tales have an emblematic significance akin to the expression of the anti-colonial resistance and the postcolonial reaction to the contemporary sociocultural scenarios of colonial India.</em></p> 2020-01-30T13:31:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##