Exchanges: The Interdisciplinary Research Journal 2020-08-27T06:19:41+01:00 Dr Gareth J Johnson Open Journal Systems <p><em>Exchanges: The Interdisciplinary Research Journal</em> is a peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the publication of high-quality work by researchers in all disciplines, especially early career researchers and emerging domain experts,&nbsp;along with those combining research with academic teaching or other professional employment. The journal welcomes articles from all academic areas, including interdisciplinary research and co-authored papers, in order to encourage intellectual exchange and debate across research communities.</p> <p>The journal's operations are overseen by a Managing Editor-in-Chief Editor based at&nbsp;the University of Warwick, UK, supported by an international Editorial Board comprising early career researchers from around the world. The title is usually published bi-annually. It also provides both editors and authors with a readily accessible and supportive environment in which to develop academic writing and publishing skills of the highest order.</p> <p>Please view our <a title="Focus and Scope" href=""><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></a> or <a title="Submit and article" href=""><strong>Submit an Article </strong></a> using our five step submission process.</p> Playful Presenting 2020-08-27T06:19:39+01:00 Amy Hondsmerk <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>The Present and Future of History and Games symposium took place at the University of Warwick on the 28th February 2020. This article provides some critical reflections on the symposium and its open theme of the study of history and games, which invited papers from a broad selection of scholars and professionals working in an interdisciplinary fashion at the intersection of these two fields. Papers brought into focus questions around particularly important or difficult topics encountered at this meeting of sectors, such as authenticity, accuracy, ownership, context, barriers, ethics and audience/player perceptions. The symposium explored how current research across various disciplines is intertwined and connected with other projects and subsequently encouraged speakers and attendees alike to consider how their work might develop and shape the future of study at the convergence of history, heritage, and gaming.</em></p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Amy Hondsmerk A ‘horrid way of feeding’ 2020-08-27T06:19:40+01:00 Desmond Fraser Bellamy <p><em>Cannibalism both fascinates and repels. The concept of the cannibal has changed and evolved, from the semi- or in-human anthropophagi of Classical texts to the ‘savage’ cannibals of colonial times, whose alleged aberrations served as a justification for invasion, conversion and extermination, to the contemporary cannibal driven often by psychosexual drives. Cannibal texts typically present the act as pervasive, aggressive and repulsive. If these parameters are admitted, alleged cannibals immediately fall outside normative European humanist morality. This paper examines cannibalism as a major delineator of the civilised human. Cannibals offer social scientists a handy milestone to confirm the constant improvement and progress of humanity. The idea that colonised peoples were not savage, degenerate cannibals threatens the concept of the ‘Great Chain of Being’, which was assumed to show an inexorable progress from plants to animals to humans, and upward toward the divine, led by enlightened Western civilisation. But cannibal mythology, factual or imaginary, offers an opportunity to re-evaluate the assumptions of human supremacism and see ourselves as edible, natural beings.</em></p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Desmond Fraser Bellamy Bearded Dragons at Play 2020-08-27T06:19:41+01:00 Theo Plothe <p><em>Animals have long appeared as the subjects and characters in digital games, but game studies scholars have rarely considered animals as players of digital games. This paper examines the mobile digital game Ant Smasher and YouTube videos of bearded dragons playing the game. This article advocates for the inclusion of these bearded dragons in gamerspace as not only a personification of the gamer within the space but as a conduit for play, a channel for gamers to breach the boundaries of gamerspace – the cultural and discursive space surrounding digital games that negotiates the relationship between the digital game and its impact on the world at large. Through an analysis of 50 YouTube videos representing these play experiences, this article considers the place of these videos within gamerspace. The implications of this work serve to better understand the relationships between digital gaming, play, and human and non-human actors in interaction with haptic media. This example also expands upon our understandings of play as a whole.</em></p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Theo Plothe Academic Fraud 2020-08-27T06:19:41+01:00 Paul Wilson <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>Academic fraud is a rising threat. Schemes to defraud funding bodies, institutions and researchers for personal gain are not a modern invention within academia but one that threatens to topple the integrity of research practice. These manifest in the form of internal research misconduct and external predatory practice, the former perpetrated by the over-ambitious and the latter by organizations predating on unsuspecting researchers. Such academic fraud can undermine academic integrity, profoundly influence key legislation, and cause societal damage. Major reform of the academic system is required to overcome these difficulties. These measures are discussed and can be divided into detection and prevention methods. Detection methods include peer-review, replication, whistle-blowing, external review bodies, digital solutions, and incentivization. Prevention methods include awareness, data repositories, institutional and editorial policies, punishment and deterrence, transparency indices, and changes to the ‘publish or perish’ mentality. These solutions are as of yet immature, flawed or in need of major revision but do have some potential in overcoming the rising threat of academic fraud.</em></p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Paul Wilson ‘That’s One of Mine’ 2020-08-27T06:19:40+01:00 Ronan Hatfull <p><em>In televisual representations of William Shakespeare’s life which blend biographical fact with fictionalised fantasy, contemporary writers often utilise the trope of the playwright colliding with characters and scenes recognisable from plays which he has yet to create and, consequently, finding inspiration. Others construct a reciprocal loop of influence, whereby Shakespeare is shown to have written or been informed by works that did not exist during his lifetime and which his plays themselves instigated. It has become fashionable in the metamodern era to depict these forms of metaphorical cannibalism in a parodic manner which oscillates between sarcastic rejection of Bardolatry and sincere appreciation for Shakespeare’s ‘genius’. Gareth Roberts satirised the notion of Shakespeare’s originality in Doctor Who episode The Shakespeare Code (2007), through the depiction of the playwright being fed and consuming his own works and specific references. In 2016, the 400<sup>th</sup> anniversary year of Shakespeare’s death, a number of commemorative BBC programmes also exhibited cannibalistic features, including the reverent (The Hollow Crown), the irreverent (Cunk on Shakespeare), and those which combined both registers (Upstart Crow). I will explore how these writers construct their portrayals of Shakespeare and, by interlacing fact and fiction, what portrait of the playwright these cannibalistic representations produce.</em></p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ronan Hatfull DAO, Blockchain and Cryptography 2020-08-27T06:19:39+01:00 Mairi Gkikaki Clare Rowan Isaac Quinn DuPont <p class="AbstractText" style="text-align: justify;"><em>In Classical Athens, as well as in our modern digital era, governance has been achieved through tokens. Tokens enabled voting on projects, representation, and belonging. The Distributed Autonomous Organisation (DAO) launched on the basis of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology was conceived as a form of algorithmic governance with applications in the organisation of companies. The visionaries of the DAO envisaged, among other things, a new form of sociality, which would be transparent and fair and based on a decentralised, unstoppable, public blockchain. These hopes were dashed when the DAO was exploited and drained of millions of dollars' worth of tokens within days after launching. The conversation published in the present article is conceived as an interdisciplinary discussion about the phenomenon of the Decentralised Autonomous Organisation and its impact on perceptions of sociality. Topics include the idea of the DAO as an algorithmic authority, the lessons learned when the project failed, the revolutionary beginnings of cryptocurrency technology and its potential in voting technologies, as well as the changing notions of cryptography in light of cryptocurrency technologies.</em></p> 2020-06-26T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mairi Gkikaki, Clare Rowan, Isaac Quinn DuPont A Tale of Two Developments 2020-08-27T06:19:38+01:00 Gareth J Johnson <p><em>This is an introductory editorial for the fifteenth volume of Exchanges. In this piece, the journal’s Editor-in-Chief explores some of the difficulties faced by authors, reviewers and editors alike working on academic publishing in a time of Covid-19 crisis. It briefly considers some of the hard decisions needed, but also examines how the lockdown period has permitted a re-visitation and embrace of the journal’s overarching ethos by the Editorial Board. The article reveals some of the drivers which have led to the launch of the journal’s new podcast series, alongside providing insights into some of the future planned episode. Crucially, the editorial provides an overview of each piece of work appearing in this journal issue as a guide for readers. The article closes by highlighting Exchanges open call for publication submissions, along with announcing a new themed call on the theme of ‘Challenge and Opportunity’.</em></p> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gareth J Johnson