Mimicking Bone - Chemical and Physical Challenges
It is known that chemical and physical features of bone contribute to its functionality, reactivity and mechanical performance. This fundamental rationale underpins the author’s research strategy. This paper presents a summary of efforts to fabricate a synthetic structure, referred to as a scaffold, that both chemically and physical emulates the intricate structure of bone. An understanding of key features of bone tissue that contribute to its remarkable properties is presented as a background to this work. Novel work aimed at improving the understanding of the synthesis of a ceramic biomaterial, namely hydroxyapatite, that is chemically similar to bone mineral is discussed. A case study involving the manufacture of porous scaffolds by 3D printing is also presented. In summary, this article highlights a number of on-going challenges that multidisciplinary tissue engineers aim to solve to get one step closer to mimicking bone, which clinically could improve the quality of life for millions of people worldwide.
Photo credit: By Doc. RNDr. Josef Reischig, CSc. (Author's archive) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
BOANINI, E., GAZZANO, M. & BIGI, A. 2010. Ionic substitutions in calcium phosphates synthesized at low temperature. Acta Biomaterialia, 6, 1882-1894.
BOSE, S. & SAHA, S. K. 2003. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanopowders by emulsion technique. Chemistry of Materials, 15, 4464-4469.
BUTSCHER, A., BOHNER, M., HOFMANN, S., GAUCKLER, L. & MULLER, R. 2011. Structural and material approaches to bone tissue engineering in powder-based three-dimensional printing. Acta Biomaterialia, 7, 907-920.
BUTSCHER, A., BOHNER, M., ROTH, C., ERNSTBERGER, A., HEUBERGER, R., DOEBELIN, N., VON ROHR, P. R. & MULLER, R. 2012. Printability of calcium phosphate powders for three-dimensional printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Acta Biomaterialia, 8, 373-385.
CAZALBOU, S., COMBES, C., EICHERT, D. & REY, C. 2004. Adaptative physico-chemistry of bio-related calcium phosphates. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 14, 2148-2153.
CENGIZ, B., GOKCE, Y., YILDIZ, N., AKTAS, Z. & CALIMLI, A. 2008. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces a-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 322, 29-33.
CHAMAY, A. & TSCHANTZ, P. 1972. Mechanical Influences in Bone Remodeling - Experimental Research on Wolffs Law. Journal of Biomechanics, 5, 173-&.
COX, S. C. 2013. Synthesis and 3D printing of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for applications in bone tissue engineering. University of Warwick.
COX, S. C., JAMSHIDI, P., GROVER, L. M. & MALLICK, K. K. 2014a. Low temperature aqueous precipitation of needle-like nanophase hydroxyapatite. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 25, 37-46.
COX, S. C., JAMSHIDI, P., GROVER, L. M. & MALLICK, K. K. 2014b. Preparation and characterisation of nanophase Sr, Mg, and Zn substituted hydroxyapatite by aqueous precipitation. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 35, 106-114.
COX, S. C., WALTON, R. I. & MALLICK, K. K. 2014c. Comparison of Techniques for the Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite.
DROUET, C. 2013. Apatite formation: why it may not work as planned, and how to conclusively identify apatite compounds. BioMed research international, 2013.
ELLIOTT, J. C. 1994. Structure and chemistry of the apatites and other calcium orthophosphates, Elsevier Amsterdam.
GIBSON, L. J. 1985. The mechanical behaviour of cancellous bone. Journal of Biomechanics, 18, 317-328.
HING, K. A. 2004. Bone repair in the twenty-first century: biology, chemistry or engineering? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 362, 2821-2850.
HUTMACHER, D. W. 2000. Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage. Biomaterials, 21, 2529-2543.
KHALYFA, A., VOGT, S., WEISSER, J., GRIMM, G., RECHTENBACH, A., MEYER, W. & SCHNABELRAUCH, M. 2007. Development of a new calcium phosphate powder-binder system for the 3D printing of patient specific implants. Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Medicine, 18, 909-916.
LANDI, E., LOGROSCINO, G., PROIETTI, L., TAMPIERI, A., SANDRI, M. & SPRIO, S. 2008. Biomimetic Mg-substituted hydroxyapatite: from synthesis to in vivo behaviour. Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Medicine, 19, 239-247.
LEONG, K. F., CHEAH, C. M. & CHUA, C. K. 2003. Solid freeform fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds for engineering replacement tissues and organs. Biomaterials, 24, 2363-2378.
LEVENTOURI, T. 2006. Synthetic and biological hydroxyapatites: Crystal structure questions. Biomaterials, 27, 3339-3342.
MACCHETTA, A., TURNER, I. G. & BOWEN, C. R. 2009. Fabrication of HA/TCP scaffolds with a graded and porous structure using a camphene-based freeze-casting method. Acta Biomaterialia, 5, 1319-1327.
MAROTTI, G., LEES & REEVE 1993. A New Theory of Bone Lamellation. Calcified Tissue International, 53, S47-S56.
NARASARAJU, T. S. B. & PHEBE, D. E. 1996. Some physico-chemical aspects of hydroxylapatite. Journal of Materials Science, 31, 1-21.
NIU, J. L. 2007. Hydrothermal synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite. Bioceramics, Vol 19, Pts 1 and 2, 330-332, 247-250.
PARK, A., WU, B. & GRIFFITH, L. G. 1998. Integration of surface modification and 3D fabrication techniques to prepare patterned poly(L-lactide) substrates allowing regionally selective cell adhesion. Journal of Biomaterials Science-Polymer Edition, 9, 89-110.
PHILLIPS, M. J., DARR, J. A., LUKLINSKA, Z. B. & REHMAN, I. 2003. Synthesis and characterization of nano-biomaterials with potential osteological applications. Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Medicine, 14, 875-882.
POSNER, A. S. 1969. Crystal chemistry of bone mineral. Physiol Rev, 49, 760-92.
RAYNAUD, S., CHAMPION, E., BERNACHE-ASSOLLANT, D. & THOMAS, P. 2002. Calcium phosphate apatites with variable Ca/P atomic ratio I. Synthesis, characterisation and thermal stability of powders. Biomaterials, 23, 1065-1072.
RITCHIE, R. O., AGER, J. W. & BALOOCH, G. 2006. Fracture, aging, and disease in bone. Journal of Materials Research, 21, 1878-1892.
ROBINSON, R. A. & WATSON, M. L. 1952. Collagen-crystal relationships in bone as seen in the electron microscope. Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 114, 383-409.
ROY, T. D., SIMON, J. L., RICCI, J. L., REKOW, E. D., THOMPSON, V. P. & PARSONS, J. R. 2003a. Performance of degradable composite bone repair products made via three-dimensional fabrication techniques. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 66A, 283-291.
ROY, T. D., SIMON, J. L., RICCI, J. L., REKOW, E. D., THOMPSON, V. P. & PARSONS, J. R. 2003b. Performance of hydroxyapatite bone repair scaffolds created via three-dimensional fabrication techniques. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 67A, 1228-1237.
SACHS, E., CIMA, M., CORNIE, J., BRANCAZIO, D., BREDT, J., CURODEAU, A., FAN, T., KHANUJA, S., LAUDER, A., LEE, J. & MICHAELS, S. 1993. Three-Dimensional Printing: The Physics and Implications of Additive Manufacturing. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 42, 257-260.
SCHMITZ, J. P. & HOLLINGER, J. O. 1986. The Critical Size Defect as an Experimental-Model for Craniomandibulofacial Nonunions. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 299-308.
SUCHANEK, W. & YOSHIMURA, M. 1998. Processing and properties of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials for use as hard tissue replacement implants. Journal of Materials Research, 13, 94-117.
WANG, X. D. & NI, Q. W. 2003. Determination of cortical bone porosity and pore size distribution using a low field pulsed NMR approach. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 21, 312-319.
WEBSTER, T. J., ERGUN, C., DOREMUS, R. H., SIEGEL, R. W. & BIZIOS, R. 2001. Enhanced osteoclast-like cell functions on nanophase ceramics. Biomaterials, 22, 1327-1333.
WEINER, S. & TRAUB, W. 1992. Bone-Structure - from Angstroms to Microns. Faseb Journal, 6, 879-885.
WEINER, S. & WAGNER, H. D. 1998. The material bone: Structure mechanical function relations. Annual Review of Materials Science, 28, 271-298.
XUE, W., MOORE, J. L., HOSICK, H. L., BOSE, S., BANDYOPADHYAY, A., LU, W., CHEUNG, K. & LUK, K. D. 2006. Osteoprecursor cell response to strontium‐containing hydroxyapatite ceramics. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 79, 804-814.
YOU, L. D., CHEN, J. H., LIU, C. & SIMMONS, C. A. 2010. Boning up on Wolff's Law: Mechanical regulation of the cells that make and maintain bone. Journal of Biomechanics, 43, 108-118.
ZHANG, L. J. & WEBSTER, T. J. 2009. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials: Promises for improved tissue regeneration. Nano Today, 4, 66-80.
Copyright (c) 2014 Exchanges: the Warwick Research Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY), which permits use and redistribution of the work provided that the original author and source are credited, a link to the license is included, and an indication of changes which were made. Third-party users may not apply legal terms or technological measures to the published article which legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
If accepted for publication authors’ work will be made open access and distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license unless previously agreed with Exchanges’ Editor-in-Chief prior to submission.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. (see: The Effect of Open Access)