Style Guide

Content | Format | Text Non-TextualDiscipline SpecificText Citations
Referencing | Submissions Author Guidelines | Peer Review | FAQ

All articles will be published electronically in the Exchanges journal and it is therefore vital that the format of the final submission conforms to the following guidelines.

Content Guide

Each journal issue typically includes the sections in the following order:

  • Editorial: An introduction and overview of that issue’s contents, along with news on forthcoming issues. Normally written by the Editor-in-Chief.
  • Conversations*: Interview articles between a high profile academic and an early career researcher, typically discussing interdisciplinary topics and provide useful overviews of the ‘state of the art’ within particular fields (3,000-5,000 words).
  • Themed Articles: Each issue presents articles around a common theme as highlighted in the call for publications issued earlier. Articles tackle this topic from disparate, disciplinary viewpoints (4,000-6,000 words).
  • Research Articles: Research communications from all disciplinary fields, often highlighting new and original research by emergent domain experts (4,000-6,000 words).
  • Review Articles: Articles providing a broad review or overview of the current understanding of a topic, providing a detailed literature review or evaluating a key new disciplinary text. (3,000-5,000 words).
  • Critical Reflections*: Short discussions of an aspect of research, or more often accounts discussing the key ideas, debates and value emerging from interdisciplinary events, symposiums, workshops or conferences. As the title suggests these are intended to employ a critique, rather than present a simple narrative recounting (1,000-3,000 words).

*May be non-peer reviewed, at the Editorial Board’s discretion.

As Exchanges’ readership represents a broad multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary researcher community, authors are strongly encouraged to develop their articles with a cross-disciplinary audience in mind. This requires careful consideration of any specialised language, terminology or assumptions of any prior knowledge needed to interpret the content. Hence, where appropriate, the inclusion of brief glossaries are encouraged.

Article Submission Format

Submitted manuscripts should conform to the minimum and maximum work limits as detailed in the Author Guidelines, depending on article type. Please refrain from excessive formatting or use of alternative software design or layout features. The final formatting of your article into Exchanges’ publication layout format will be done in the copyediting stage by the Editors. All submissions should be written in English, using British English spellings wherever possible.

The expected order of manuscript sections is as follows. Optional sections are indicated by an asterisk (*):

Cover Page: Article Title, Author names, Affiliations, Email Addresses

Main Text: Title, abstract, keywords, main text, *acknowledgements*, *lists of illustrations, figures, maps and/or list of tables, *appendices, references, *endnotes.

Cover Page: To facilitate peer review, a cover page including all authors’ full names, affiliations, and email addresses should be included for all submissions. Names or other identifying features should not appear on any other part of the manuscript.

Abstract: An abstract of 100-200 words should be submitted with all articles.

Keywords: Authors should supply around six keywords for indexing and abstracting purposes.

File Format: Articles should be submitted in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect.

Layout: Page margins should be set to at least 2.5cm all round. Main body text should be left aligned, 1.5 lines spaced, and should use the Calibri or Arial (11 point) font.

Section Headings: A maximum of three levels of headings may be used if necessary. These be left aligned, appear on separate lines and unnumbered. First-level headings (14pt Arial, title case), Second-level headings (12pt Arial, title case), Third-level headings, avoided where possible, (11pt Arial, italics, sentence case).

Endnotes: These may be included if needed, but authors are recommended to avoid their use. Numbers should follow punctuation, and preferably be placed at the end of a sentence. Footnotes are not permitted. 

Referencing: The Harvard style of referencing should be used (see below).


A single space (not a double) should be used after a full stop, comma, colon or semi-colon.

Spelling should conform to the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary (e.g. using British English). Use -ise, in preference to -ize as a verbal ending (e.g. realise, specialise, recognise, etc).

Use full stops after abbreviations (p.m., e.g., i.e., etc.) and after contractions where the end of the word is cut (p., ed., ch.); full stops are not required where the contraction ends in the same letter as the original word (Dr, vols).

In general, numbers up to ten should be spelled out, but use numerals for measurements (e.g. 6 km) and ages (e.g. 9 years old). Insert a comma for tens of thousands (e.g. 20,000), but not for numbers up to 9999.

Set out dates as follows: 9 July 1990 (no comma), on 8 July, or on the 8th; 1990s (not spelt out, no apostrophe); nineteenth century (not 19 century) and insert hyphen when used adjectivally (e.g. nineteenth-century art).

Refer to your work as an 'article' (i.e. do not call it a paper, an essay, a dissertation, etc.).

Titles of books, journals or other texts mentioned by name within the manuscript’s main body should be italicised for emphasis the first time they are mentioned.


Use single quotation marks for quoted material within the text; double quotation marks should only be used for quotes within quotes. Quotations (block quotations) of over forty words (or more than two lines of verse) should be extracted from the text and presented as an indented and italicised block separated by line breaks. No quotation marks should be used for block quotations, and a source citation for the quote including page ranges should be included

Where sections of the original quote have been omitted, use an ellipsis (...) to indicate the omission. E.g. ‘…let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself…which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance’ (Roosevelt, F.D., 1932)

Where explanatory wording has been added to the quotation, indicate this by enclosing the words within square brackets [ ]. E.g.

Who takes the Pandorica takes the Universe! But, bad news everyone, 'cause guess who! Ha! Except, you lot, you're all whizzing about, it's really very distracting. Could you all just stay still a minute because [shouts louder] I am talking! (Smith, M., 2010: 37)

Non-Textual Material

Where possible, tables, graphs, maps, web addresses (URLs) and any other additions to the text should be formatted and contained in the correct place in the text. Any additions which cannot be contained within the text, such as video clips, should be supplied separately with a note in the text to indicate where the resource should be located. E.g.

Author’s Note: Insert Video “Guide to Academic Copyright” here

Insert your material in as format-free a way as possible, using a line break before and afterwards, to separate it from the rest of the article. Include an appropriate caption underneath it (10pt, Calibri). Do not: anchor anything to a fixed point, use a different captions font, use text boxes or wrap text around images.

While we appreciate authors may wish to make their submission appealing to the eye, as the final revised article will undergo formatting during copyediting to the Exchanges publication format, additional author layout and formatting outside of these standards may delay the publication of your article.


For photos JPEG is generally the best format. Photos should be resized to a size suitable for displaying on a web page. You should ensure that you have the necessary permissions for reproducing photographs, maps, tables etc., before submitting your article. A caption should be placed under each illustration saying what it depicts, followed by details of the source. For example:

Source: Alan Walker's collection of photographs

At the end of your article you should also include a list of illustrations together with source information, e.g. 'Photo reproduced by kind permission of Alan Walker'. Some rights holders may specify particular forms of attribution as a condition of their granting you permission, which you must abide by. If an image is your own intellectual property, you may use it within your publication as you see fit, but it is good practice to include information to indicate your personal ownership of the image. E.g.

Source: Photograph from author’s personal collection

Audio Visual Media

For audio we recommend using the .mp3 format, or alternatively providing a link to a suitable media streaming site. For video we recommend using flash video (.flv) format, although other formats (.mov, avi and .wmv) can be used. As noted above, authors can also choose to supply a link to a streaming site, such as YouTube, Vimeo, SoundCloud etc. If you are unsure about the suitability of a media format, contact the Editorial Board or Editor-in-Chief for clarification.

Note, video and audio recordings are subject to copyright restrictions and where the media is embedded in the article, permission for use should be sought. Sources should also always be acknowledged, as for images.

Discipline-Specific Information

The following information does not seek to cover every aspect of every discipline, and it will be periodically updated as we receive submissions from different subject areas. Please contact the Editorial Board if you need specific advice on anything not contained here.

Foreign Languages

Quotations from works in foreign languages should abide by the general rules for quotations, listed above. In addition to this, a translation into English in the same format (i.e. indented or not indented), enclosed in square brackets, should follow. An indication should also be given as to whether the translation is taken from a published translation of the work (in which case the reference must be given) or whether it is the author's own.

French: include all relevant accents on lower-case letters; use them on upper-case letters only where they are needed to avoid confusion. Use single quotation marks in preference to guillemets, except where the guillemets themselves form part of the quotation.

German: Use letters with umlauts for both upper- and lower-case letters in preference to the addition of an 'e'. For modern works follow the new orthography established in 1998; quotations from works published in old spelling should follow the old style. Note particularly the rules surrounding the use of 'ss' in preference to the Eszett (ß).

Greek: Individual words or short phrases in Greek should be transliterated; longer quotations should remain in Greek script but should be followed by a translation.


Latin legal terms should be written in italic: de jure, ex parte, habeas corpus etc. For names of parties in cases, also use italics, with 'v' having no full stop after it: Ford v Wainwright, Smith v Washington.

Where a term is repeated frequently, and/or is unwieldy when spelled out, type it in full the first time with an accepted abbreviation afterwards in parentheses: 'International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)' and use the abbreviation on its own in subsequent references.

In other abbreviations, use a full stop after abbreviations which consist of a mixture of upper- and lower-case letters but not between or after capitals: 'Ont. LJ', 'Ch. D', but 'QBD', 'AC'.


Use BC and AD in preference to CE and BCE; use small capitals and insert a space after the number, thus: 64 BC.

Some authors prefer to use the present tense when referring to ancient individuals: 'Cicero wants' rather than 'Cicero wanted'. This is acceptable but needs to be used consistently - do not vary your tenses as you go along.

If you anglicise Roman names, use the full Latin name at the first mention and then note that you will anglicise thereafter. 'Lucius Segius Catalina (hereinafter Catiline)'.

Give full names rather than abbreviations: 'Publius Sulla', not 'P. Sulla'

Continue to follow the Harvard system of referencing (i.e. name and page number) for your in-text citations of original works, even where different conventions exist elsewhere: '(Cicero, 1982: 26)' rather than '(Cic. Pro Sul. 81)'.

Provide English translations for any quotations in Latin. These should be in the same format (i.e. indented or not indented), and enclosed in square brackets. An indication should also be given as to whether the translation is taken from a published translation of the work (in which case the reference must be given) or whether it is the author's own.

Any Greek terms should be in italics. At the first mention of a term it should be followed by a short explanatory note in parentheses, e.g. 'a black-figure dinos (mixing bowl), painted by [...]'; the Greek term (still in italics) can be used on its own thereafter.

Science, Mathematics and Computing

Authors should follow the standards common in their discipline, and should avoid introducing non-standard symbols.

Use the internationally agreed abbreviations for all SI units.

Clarity in presentation is essential: for example, authors should differentiate clearly between the numbers 0 and 1, and the letters O and I; also where appropriate between the letter x and the multiplication sign ×

Extracts from software code should be presented italicised and indented, as block quotations. Long sections of code exceeding half a page, should be placed in an appendix or referenced via a link to an appropriate software repository location.

Text Citation & Referencing

The Harvard Referencing system should be used in all papers. Examples of such referencing can be found below.

Text citations

References in the text (citations) should include surname and date (Marsh, 1997). Et al., should be used where there are more than two authors (Marsh et al., 1997). Direct quotes or ideas that relate to a certain range of pages in a publication should also be referenced by page numbers after the date (Marsh, 1997: 34) or (Marsh, 1997: 34-36). Note that there is a space after the colon, but not between the numbers and hyphen.

If the same author has two or more references dating from the same year, they can be differentiated by letters (Marsh, 1997a) or (Marsh, 1997b).

If the work you are citing has more than one volume, you need to give the volume number as well as the page number: (Marsh, 1997, vol. 2: 34).


Full references should be listed, alphabetically, by author surname at the end of the paper. All authors should be identified by surname and then initial(s). Et al. should not be used in full references, and all contributing authors should be listed.

When listing a page number range, normally give the last two digits of the final page (e.g. 32-39; 112-19) unless additional page numbers range over additional digits (e.g. 198-213; 1297-302) and greater clarity is needed.

Referencing Different Publication Types

Monographs and Multi-Author Books

For books the full information includes the title, place of publication and name of the publisher. Note the position of the full stops, commas and colons, and follow this pattern. Note that the book title, but not the surrounding punctuation, is in italics.

Manunta, G., 1998. Security: An introduction. Cranfield: Cranfield University Press.

For works with multiple volumes, put the total number of volumes after the title, even if you have only used one volume for reference. As noted, your in-text citation should specify volume as well as page number.

Grace, B., F. Bloggs and Smith, J., 1988. A History of the World, 17 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Edited Books & Chapters

This format is the same as for an authored book, but the editor's name must be followed by ed., to show they did not author the work. Note that if there is more than one editor, the list of names should be followed by eds.,.

Keene, E., ed., 1988. Natural Language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.

For references to chapters within edited works, you need to include details about the chapter and the book within which it appears. The title of the chapter is followed by In: and the details of the book, which should be formatted in the same way as the 'edited book' example above. Note particularly that the page reference should be preceded by pp.

Coffin, J. M., 1999. Molecular Biology of HIV. In: Crandell, K.A., ed., The Evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 2-10.

Later Editions

If you are making use of a later edition of an earlier work, always give the details of the edition you have actually used, not the original publication date, as any page numbers will vary between editions. There may be other revisions between editions of which you may be unaware and so you need to make it clear to which edition you are referring. Do note in the reference which edition you have used, as below.

Manunta, G., 2018. Security: An introduction. 3rd edn. Cranfield: Cranfield University Press.

Reprint Editions

Again, you should reference the edition which you are actually using, as page numbers may vary between editions. After the publication details, put in brackets the original publisher and year. If the title was different in the original edition, you should also include this information as well in your note, e.g. (originally published as Title by Publisher in year).

Newman, J. H., 1974. An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine. London: Penguin (originally published by Longman in 1897).

Unpublished Thesis

Citations for theses or dissertations are similar in format to books, although you need to clearly indicate the level (e.g. Ph.D., M.Phil., M.A., M.Sc. etc) and the awarding academic institution. Where a thesis is available online, a similar format to online journal articles is adopted.

Neary, M., 1994, Youth, Training and the Training State: The real history of youth training in the twentieth century. Ph.D thesis, University of Warwick, UK.

Alemayehu, M.W., 2010. Researchers' Attitude to using Institutional Repositories: A case study of the Oslo University Institutional Repository (DUO). M.A. Dissertation, Oslo University College, Sweden. Available at: [Accessed: 8 January 2016].

Note: extensive quotation from an unpublished thesis normally requires permission from the rights holder, who may be the author or awarding institution, depending on each university’s rules. In the first instance, you should contact the author to seek permission.

Journal and Newspaper Articles

For journal articles the standard format is: Author, Year of publication. Article title. Journal title, Volume (Issue), page numbers. Note the title of the journal is in italics. The citation should give the journal’s volume and issue number, although where titles do not have issue numbers this may be omitted. The page reference for the article is also included and preceded by pp.

Somekh, B. and Davies, R., 1991. Towards a pedagogy for information technology. The Curriculum Journal, 18 (2), pp. 153-70.

References to newspaper articles should take a similar format to journal articles: Author, Year of publication. Article title. Newspaper title, date, page numbers. Note that the exact date including day and month should be given.

Slapper, G., 2006. Corporate manslaughter, new issues for lawyers. The Times, 3 September 2006, pp. 4-5.

For online articles where a URL, or preferably DOI, is available, this should be included in the article reference along with the date the article was last accessed by the author.

Streeck, W., 2014. How Will Capitalism End? New Left Review, 87, pp. 35-64. Available at: [Accessed: 13 June 2018].

Kirby, A., 2012. Scientific communication, open access, and the publishing industry. Political Geography, 31(5). Available at: [Accessed: 4 February 2018].

Online newspapers again follow a similar format to online journal articles, with the date still being a critical piece of information.

Wolff, J., 2013. Why The Sopranos may not be the best business model for universities. The Guardian, 23 September. Available at: [Accessed: 3 June 2017].

Internet Resources

For internet references falling outside the other categories covered here, should include both the web address (URL) along with the last date the page was accessed, similarly to online journals.

Pearson, M., 1999. Online study skills guide. Available at:, [Accessed: 16 September 2014].

Conference Proceedings and Papers

Where these have been published, you should treat them in a similar way to a book citation, with the exception that the title of the conference and its dates should be included, along with publisher details. The format should be: Author., Year. Paper title. Proceedings Title, Conference Dates, Publisher Location, Publisher Name, Page range. For example:

Simbuerger, E., and Lambert, C., 2006. Reinventing Academic Practice. New Educational Practice, Proceedings of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, 12-14 Dec 2006, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 20-34.

For conference papers which have not been formally published, you may omit the publisher and page details. However, you should include the organisation hosting the conference as the ‘publishing’ organisation. For example:

Simbuerger, E. and Lambert, C., 2006. Reinventing Academic Practice. Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, 12-14 December 2006, Brighton [unpublished].

Priego, E., 2014. The Impacts of Impact. UK Serials Group (UKSG) 37th Annual Conference and Exhibition, 15 April 2014, Harrogate International Conference Centre [unpublished].

Where proceedings or conference papers are available online, you should additionally include the URL and access date. For example:d

Johnson, G.J., 2015. A Critical Examination of Barriers to Open Access in UK Academia. ISIS Summit Vienna 2015, 3-7 June 2015, International Society for Information Studies, Vienna University of Technology, Austria. Available at: [Accessed 10 December 2016].

Further Advice

For advice on anything not included in this style guide, contact the Editorial Board or Editor-in-Chief (


For advice on anything not included in this style guide, please feel free to contact us at